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RGU & MCU Urethrography

RGU & MCU Urethrography: When contrast is introduced into the front section of the urethra for examination, it’s called either retrograde urethrography (RUG) or ascending urethrography (ASU). These methods focus on observing the anterior part of the urethra.


When observing the urethra’s rear section during urination, it’s termed either voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), descending urethrography, or micturating urethrography (MCU). These techniques aim to study the posterior urethra during the act of emptying the bladder.

The resulting visuals obtained from these procedures are referred to as urethrograms.


Retrograde urethrography (RGU) is a medical imaging procedure used to examine the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. During RGU, a contrast dye is gently inserted into the urethra through a thin tube called a catheter. X-ray images are then taken while the contrast dye fills and outlines the urethra. This process helps visualize the structure and any abnormalities in the distal urethra, such as strictures (narrowing), obstructions, or injuries. RGU is valuable in diagnosing conditions affecting the urethra and guiding treatment decisions for various urinary tract issues.

Indications for RGU

Retrograde Urethrography (RGU) is typically indicated in various scenarios related to suspected or confirmed urethral issues. Some common indications include:

  1. Urethral Strictures: RGU helps in diagnosing and evaluating the extent and location of urethral strictures (narrowing of the urethra), guiding treatment decisions.
  2. Urethral Trauma: In cases of suspected urethral injury due to trauma or accidents, RGU assists in visualizing and assessing any damage to the urethra.
  3. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): When recurrent UTIs suggest underlying urethral abnormalities, RGU is employed to investigate potential structural problems.
  4. Urinary Flow Issues: If a person experiences difficulty urinating or reduced urine flow, RGU helps in identifying obstructions or abnormalities causing these issues.
  5. Painful Urination (Dysuria): When dysuria is present without an apparent cause, RGU is used to explore potential urethral abnormalities or conditions.
  6. Pre- and Post-Surgical Evaluation: RGU is utilized as part of pre-surgical assessments to understand urethral conditions before procedures like urethral surgery or after surgery to assess outcomes.

How is RGU Performed?

During Retrograde Urethrography (RGU), a thin tube (catheter) is gently inserted into the urethra, and a contrast dye is injected through the catheter to visualize the urethral structure. X-ray images are taken as the dye fills the urethra, providing detailed images of the urethra’s outline and any abnormalities. The contrast dye, typically a safe iodinated material, helps in identifying issues. After imaging, the catheter is removed. Allergies to the dye should be disclosed before the procedure to mitigate any potential risks.


Micturating Cystourethrogram (MCU) is a diagnostic imaging test used to examine the bladder and urethra during urination. During an MCU, a contrast dye is introduced into the bladder through a thin tube called a catheter. X-ray images or fluoroscopy (real-time X-ray imaging) are then taken while the person urinates, allowing visualization of the bladder and urethra as the contrast dye flows out of the bladder.

This procedure helps doctors assess the functioning of the bladder and urethra during voiding (urination). It’s particularly useful in diagnosing conditions such as vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), bladder abnormalities, urethral issues, or structural problems affecting urination. MCU provides real-time imaging of the urinary tract to identify any abnormalities or anomalies that might affect the normal flow of urine or cause urinary problems.

Indications for MCU

Micturating Cystourethrogram (MCU) is indicated for various urinary tract conditions or suspected abnormalities. Some common indications for performing an MCU include:

  1. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): Especially in children, to investigate and diagnose underlying causes, such as vesicoureteral reflux (VUR).
  2. Urinary Incontinence: When involuntary urine leakage occurs, MCU helps identify any structural issues within the urinary tract causing this condition.
  3. Suspected Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR): To confirm or evaluate the severity of reflux where urine flows backward from the bladder into the ureters or kidneys.
  4. Bladder Dysfunction: For individuals experiencing bladder emptying problems or incomplete emptying, MCU helps identify bladder abnormalities or urethral issues.
  5. Urethral or Bladder Anomalies: In cases of suspected congenital abnormalities affecting the urethra or bladder, MCU aids in diagnosing and understanding these conditions.
  6. Evaluation Post-Urinary Tract Surgery: MCU can be used post-surgery to assess the success of the procedure or to identify any new issues arising after the surgery.

How is MCU Performed?

During a Micturating Cystourethrogram (MCU), a thin tube (catheter) is gently inserted into the bladder, and a contrast dye is slowly introduced through the catheter. X-ray images or fluoroscopy capture the dye’s flow as the person urinates, providing real-time visuals of the bladder and urethra during voiding. These images help assess bladder function, identifying any abnormalities or reflux. After imaging, the catheter is removed. MCU is crucial for diagnosing conditions affecting urinary function and structural issues within the bladder and urethra.

Are there any Side Effects of RGU or MCU Procedures?

RGU (Retrograde Urethrography) and MCU (Micturating Cystourethrogram) are generally safe procedures but, like any medical imaging test, they may have some potential side effects or risks, though these are rare. Some possible side effects or considerations include:


Discomfort: Mild discomfort or a sensation of pressure when the catheter is inserted into the urethra.
Allergic Reaction: Rarely, some individuals might have an allergic reaction to the contrast dye used during the procedure, causing hives, itching, or in severe cases, anaphylaxis (extreme allergic reaction).
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI): There is a slight risk of developing a UTI after the procedure due to the introduction of the catheter into the urinary tract.


Discomfort: Some discomfort during the insertion of the catheter into the bladder and during urination when contrast is passed.
Allergic Reaction: Similar to RGU, there’s a slight risk of an allergic reaction to the contrast dye used in the procedure.
UTI Risk: As with RGU, there’s a minimal risk of developing a UTI due to catheter insertion.

It’s essential to discuss any concerns or allergies with the urologist before the procedure. Complications are rare, and the benefits of these tests often outweigh the risks, providing valuable information for diagnosing and managing urinary tract issues. At Institute of Urology, we take detailed history of any allergic reactions before doing any diagnostic procedure. In addition, the risk of UTI during catheter insertion is minimised by using freshly autoclaved instruments by a highly trained team of doctors and staff.

Uroradiology Procedures such as RGU & MCU in Jaipur – Institute of Urology, Jaipur

Uroradiology, encompassing procedures like Retrograde Urethrography (RGU) and Micturating Cystourethrogram (MCU), stands as a cornerstone in urological diagnostics and treatments. These imaging techniques provide invaluable insights into the intricate structures of the urinary tract, aiding in the precise diagnosis of various urological conditions. RGU allows detailed examination of the urethra, identifying strictures, injuries, or abnormalities, guiding tailored treatment plans. Similarly, MCU offers real-time visualization of the bladder and urethra during urination, enabling the detection of reflux, urinary dysfunction, or structural anomalies, crucial for accurate diagnosis and effective management strategies in urological care. These procedures play a pivotal role in offering clinicians a comprehensive understanding of urinary tract issues, ensuring targeted interventions, and optimizing patient outcomes in urological treatments.

At Institute of Urology, Jaipur our motto is to provide Complete Urology Care under One Roof. Therefore all such uroradiological procedures are performed within the hospital premises itself by using latest laboratory equipments and machines under direct supervision of our consultant urologists. This makes sure that our patients avoid the trouble of going place to place for getting different tests done. It also helps us pin point the exact diagnosis quickly as we do not have to wait for long time for reporting and results. Hence, we are able to start the treatment protocol as soon as possible. We continue to take such steps towards further improving our services to the best of our abilities.

Now, You can also avail the facility of online consultation before visiting us in person in order to discuss your problems with our Senior Urologist. We can be reached at the following numbers:
Dr. M. Roychowdhury – 9929513468
Dr. Rajan Bansal – 8601539297

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