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Kidney Stones in Children – Diagnosis & Treatment

Kidney Stones in Children – Diagnosis & Treatment: Kidney stones, once considered a condition predominantly affecting adults, are increasingly being diagnosed in children. While kidney stones in children may seem uncommon, their prevalence is on the rise. Understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for kidney stones in children is crucial for early detection and effective management of this condition.

Kidney Stones in Children Jaipur Rajasthan Best Doctor Urologist Dr Rajan Bansal

What Causes Kidney Stones in Children?

Kidney stones in children can stem from various factors, including dehydration, dietary habits, and underlying medical conditions. Dehydration, often due to insufficient fluid intake, can lead to concentrated urine, predisposing children to stone formation. Dietary factors play a crucial role, with diets high in salt, sugar, and certain minerals contributing to stone development. Additionally, children with underlying medical conditions such as urinary tract infections (UTIs), metabolic disorders like hypercalciuria or hyperoxaluria, or genetic predispositions may face an increased risk of kidney stones.

What are the Symptoms of Kidney Stones in Children?

  1. Severe abdominal or flank pain with or without vomiting
  2. Blood in the urine (hematuria)
  3. Frequent urination or burning urinary sensation
  4. Irritability or refusal to eat in younger children

Recognizing the symptoms of kidney stones in children is paramount for early detection and intervention. While symptoms can vary, common manifestations include severe abdominal or flank pain, frequent urination, blood in the urine (hematuria), nausea, and vomiting. Younger children may exhibit non-specific symptoms such as irritability, crying during urination, or refusal to eat, necessitating a high index of suspicion for kidney stones.

How are Kidney Stones Diagnosed in Children?

Diagnosing kidney stones in children involves a comprehensive evaluation encompassing clinical assessment, urine tests, and imaging studies. Physical examination may reveal tenderness over the kidneys or signs of discomfort during urination. Urinalysis helps detect blood, crystals, or other abnormalities indicative of kidney stones. Imaging modalities are the most helpful tool to determine the size and location of a renal stone. Imaging modalities such as ultrasound are commonly used to evaluate and confirm kidney stones. CT scan provides further corroborative evidence and adds to the diagnosis by predicting the possible composition of the stone. Moreover, CT scan is considered gold standard for kidney stones for its ability to detect very small stones.

How are Kidney Stones Treated in Children?

The treatment approach for kidney stones in children depends on various factors, including the size and location of the stones, the severity of symptoms, and the child’s overall health. In many cases, small kidney stones may pass spontaneously with increased fluid intake and pain management. However, larger stones or those causing significant symptoms may require intervention. Treatment options may include

  • Fluid Therapy:
    • Encourage increased fluid intake, primarily water, to maintain adequate hydration and promote urine dilution.
    • Fluid therapy aids in the spontaneous passage of small stones (<5 mm) and helps prevent stone recurrence.
  • Medical Management (effective for small ureteric stones)
    • Alpha-blockers: Relax smooth muscles in the ureter, facilitating stone passage and reducing pain.
    • Calcium channel blockers or corticosteroids may be prescribed to enhance stone expulsion rates in select cases.
    • Analgesics: Provide symptomatic relief by alleviating pain associated with kidney stones.
  • Minimally Invasive Procedures
    • Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL):
      • Non-invasive procedure that utilizes shock waves to fragment kidney stones, facilitating their passage through the urinary tract.
    • Ureteroscopy or RIRS
      • Minimally invasive endoscopic procedure involving the insertion of a thin, flexible scope into the ureter or kidney to visualize and remove stones.
    • Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PNL):
      • Surgical technique reserved for large or complex kidney stones, involving percutaneous access to the kidney for stone removal.
  • Invasive Surgical Procedure
    • Open surgery or laparoscopic techniques may be employed for rare cases of large, impacted stones or anatomical abnormalities hindering other treatment modalities.

How to Prevent Kidney Stones in Children and Teenagers?

  • Dietary Modifications:
    • Emphasize a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains while limiting processed foods high in salt, sugar, and oxalates.
    • Dietary calcium restriction is not recommended for stone prevention in children, as it may adversely affect bone health.
  • Lifestyle Adjustments:
    • Promote regular physical activity and discourage sedentary behavior to maintain overall health and urinary tract function.
    • Encourage healthy habits such as regular bathroom breaks and adequate hydration to minimize the risk of stone formation.
  • Patient Education:
    • Educate children and parents about the importance of hydration, dietary choices, and prompt medical evaluation for urinary symptoms.
    • Provide resources and support to facilitate adherence to preventive measures and long-term management strategies.


Kidney stones in children represent a significant health concern that demands attention from healthcare professionals and parents alike. By understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatment options outlined in this article, stakeholders can collaborate effectively to mitigate the impact of kidney stones on children’s health and well-being. Early detection, prompt intervention, and preventive strategies are paramount in ensuring optimal outcomes for children affected by kidney stones.

Best Hospital in Jaipur for Treatment of Kidney Stones in Children – Institute of Urology, C Scheme, Jaipur

At the Institute of Urology, we pride ourselves on being at the forefront of urological care, including the treatment of pediatric stone disease. Our commitment to excellence is reflected in our advanced diagnostic capabilities, multidisciplinary expertise, and cutting-edge treatment modalities. We understand the unique challenges that pediatric patients and their families face, which is why we prioritize compassionate and child-centric care in everything we do. From state-of-the-art imaging technologies to minimally invasive procedures and child-friendly facilities, we strive to provide the highest standard of care while ensuring the comfort and well-being of our young patients.

With our dedicated team of specialists and our unwavering commitment to innovation and compassion, the Institute of Urology remains the premier destination for pediatric stone disease treatment, offering hope and healing to children and their families alike.

We have also started the facility of online consultation so that you can discuss about your problems in detail with our experts from the comfort of your home. Please remember to keep ready all the investigations that you’ve had done so far so that it is helpful for the specialist to guide you precisely about the next course of action. At Institute of Urology, we strictly abide by the International protocols so that we keep up with the latest and best of what the advancements in the medical field has to offer.

Our doctors can be reached Monday to Saturday during working hours.
Dr. M. Roychowdhury – 9929513468/ 9829013468
Dr. Rajan Bansal – 8601539297

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