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Hypospadias: Comprehensive Overview, Diagnosis and Treatment

Hypospadias is a common congenital condition affecting the male urethra, where the urinary opening is located on the underside of the penis rather than at the tip. This malformation can vary in severity, impacting the function and appearance of the penis. Hypospadias affects approximately 1 in every 200-300 male births and requires surgical intervention in many cases to correct the anomaly and ensure proper urinary and reproductive function.

Hypospadias Treatment Jaipur Rajasthan Dr Rajan Bansal Dr M Roychowdhury Best doctor urologist

Anatomy and Pathophysiology of Hypospadias

Hypospadias occurs due to incomplete development of the urethra during fetal growth. The exact cause is multifactorial, involving genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. The urethra and foreskin form simultaneously during gestation, and any disruption in this process can result in hypospadias.

Types of Hypospadias

Hypospadias is classified based on the location of the urethral meatus:

  • Anterior (Distal) Hypospadias: The meatus is located near the head of the penis, either on the glans or just below it.
  • Middle (Midshaft) Hypospadias: The meatus is located along the shaft of the penis.
  • Posterior (Proximal) Hypospadias: The meatus is located near the base of the penis or within the scrotum.

The severity of hypospadias can range from minor cases requiring minimal intervention to more severe forms that significantly affect urinary and sexual function.

Causes and Risk Factors

The exact etiology of hypospadias remains unclear, but several risk factors have been identified:

  • Genetic Factors: A family history of hypospadias increases the likelihood of the condition.
  • Hormonal Factors: Disruptions in androgen signaling during fetal development can lead to hypospadias.
  • Environmental Factors: Exposure to certain environmental chemicals, such as endocrine disruptors, during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of hypospadias.
  • Maternal Factors: Advanced maternal age, pre-existing diabetes, and certain medications taken during pregnancy may contribute to the development of hypospadias.

Symptoms and Complications


The primary symptom of hypospadias is the abnormal location of the urethral opening. Other associated features can include:

  • Chordee: A downward curvature of the penis.
  • Hooded Foreskin: Incomplete formation of the foreskin on the underside of the penis.
  • Spraying of Urine: Difficulty in directing the urine stream due to the misplaced meatus.


If left untreated, hypospadias can lead to several complications, including:

  • Urinary Dysfunction: Difficulty urinating standing up and abnormal urine stream.
  • Sexual Dysfunction: Issues with sexual function and ejaculation.
  • Psychosocial Impact: Potential psychological effects due to penile appearance and function.


Clinical Examination

Hypospadias is typically diagnosed through a physical examination at birth. The pediatrician or pediatric urologist will assess the location of the urethral meatus, the presence of chordee, and the overall appearance of the penis. In some cases, further evaluations may be necessary to determine the extent of the anomaly.

Imaging Studies

While physical examination is often sufficient, imaging studies may be used in complex cases:

  • Ultrasound: To evaluate associated urinary tract anomalies.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Rarely used, but can provide detailed anatomical information in severe cases.

Genetic and Hormonal Testing

In cases where hypospadias is part of a broader syndrome or associated with other abnormalities, genetic and hormonal testing may be indicated. This can help identify underlying conditions that may need to be addressed.


The goal of hypospadias treatment is to correct the anatomical defect, ensuring normal urinary function, acceptable cosmetic appearance, and normal sexual function. Surgical intervention is the primary treatment modality.

Timing of Surgery

Surgical correction of hypospadias is typically performed between 6 and 18 months of age. This timing is chosen to minimize psychological impact and because tissues are more pliable, facilitating easier repair. However, surgery can be performed at any age if necessary.

Surgical Techniques

Several surgical techniques are available, and the choice of procedure depends on the severity and location of the hypospadias.

Distal Hypospadias Repair

For distal hypospadias, the following techniques are commonly used:

  • Meatal Advancement and Glanuloplasty (MAGPI): Used for glanular and coronal hypospadias. The meatus is advanced to the tip of the glans, and the glans is reconstructed.
  • Snodgrass Procedure (Tubularized Incised Plate Urethroplasty): The urethral plate is incised, and the edges are tubularized to create a new urethra. This technique is widely used due to its excellent outcomes and low complication rates.

Proximal Hypospadias Repair

For more severe cases, such as proximal hypospadias, more complex procedures are required:

  • Two-Stage Repair: In cases with severe chordee or significant tissue deficiency, a staged approach may be necessary. The first stage involves correcting the chordee and preparing the tissues. The second stage, performed several months later, involves creating a new urethra.
  • Preputial Flap Techniques: The foreskin is used to create a flap that forms the new urethra. This technique is versatile and can be adapted to various hypospadias severities.

Postoperative Care

Postoperative care is crucial for successful outcomes and involves:

  • Pain Management: Adequate pain control with medications.
  • Catheter Care: A catheter may be left in place to ensure proper urinary drainage and allow healing. Parents need to be educated on catheter care.
  • Wound Care: Instructions on how to care for the surgical site to prevent infection and ensure proper healing.
  • Follow-Up Visits: Regular follow-up with the surgeon to monitor healing and identify any complications early.

Complications of Surgery

While hypospadias surgery is generally successful, potential complications include:

  • Fistula Formation: An abnormal connection between the urethra and the skin, leading to urine leakage.
  • Meatal Stenosis: Narrowing of the new urethral opening, which can obstruct urine flow.
  • Urethral Stricture: Narrowing of the urethra, causing difficulty in urination.
  • Residual Chordee: Persistent curvature of the penis.

Long-Term Outcomes

Long-term outcomes for hypospadias repair are generally favorable, especially with modern surgical techniques. Most patients achieve normal urinary and sexual function. However, long-term follow-up into adolescence and adulthood is recommended to monitor for any late complications and to ensure continued normal function and appearance.

Psychosocial Impact

Addressing the psychosocial aspects of hypospadias is important. Counseling and support may be beneficial for patients and families to help cope with the emotional and psychological effects of the condition and its treatment.

Recent Advances and Research

Recent advances in the understanding and treatment of hypospadias have focused on improving surgical techniques, minimizing complications, and exploring the genetic and environmental factors contributing to the condition.

Surgical Innovations

  • Robotic-Assisted Surgery: Although not yet widely adopted, robotic-assisted techniques are being explored for their precision and potential to reduce complications.
  • Tissue Engineering: Research into using tissue engineering to create urethral tissues for reconstruction is ongoing, with the goal of improving outcomes and reducing the need for multiple surgeries.

Genetic and Environmental Studies

Studies are increasingly focusing on the genetic and environmental factors contributing to hypospadias. Understanding these factors better may lead to preventive strategies and improved diagnostic tools.

Long-Term Outcomes Research

Long-term studies are critical in understanding the outcomes of hypospadias repair. These studies help identify late complications, such as issues with sexual function, and can guide future treatment protocols.


Hypospadias is a common congenital anomaly that requires timely diagnosis and appropriate surgical intervention. Advances in surgical techniques have significantly improved outcomes for patients with hypospadias, allowing most to achieve normal urinary and sexual function. Ongoing research into the genetic and environmental causes of hypospadias, as well as innovations in surgical methods, hold promise for further enhancing patient care. Long-term follow-up and psychosocial support are essential components of comprehensive care for individuals with hypospadias.

Best Hospital for Hypospadias Treatment in Jaipur, Rajasthan – Institute of Urology, C Scheme, Jaipur

The Institute of Urology is a leading medical center known for its technical excellence in treating hypospadias and other pediatric urological conditions. Equipped with the latest diagnostic and surgical technologies, the institute provides top-tier care for children requiring urological interventions. The expert team of pediatric urologists at the institute employs advanced, minimally invasive surgical techniques to correct hypospadias, ensuring the best functional and aesthetic outcomes. In addition to hypospadias, the institute offers comprehensive treatment for a range of pediatric urological disorders, combining cutting-edge technology with compassionate care to support the unique needs of young patients and their families. This commitment to excellence and innovation positions the Institute of Urology as a premier destination for pediatric urological care.

We have also started the facility of online consultation so that you can discuss about your problems in detail with our experts from the comfort of your home. Please remember to keep ready all the investigations that you’ve had done so far so that it is helpful for the specialist to guide you precisely about the next course of action. At Institute of Urology, we strictly abide by the International protocols so that we keep up with the latest and best of what the advancements in the medical field has to offer.

Our doctors can be reached Monday to Saturday during working hours.
Dr. M. Roychowdhury – 9929513468/ 9829013468
Dr. Rajan Bansal – 8601539297


  1. Springer, A. (2014). “Assessment and management of hypospadias.” Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 26(4), 436-441.
  2. Baskin, L. S., & Ebbers, M. B. (2006). “Hypospadias: anatomy, etiology, and technique.” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 41(3), 463-472.
  3. Snodgrass, W., & Bush, N. (2011). “Recent advances in understanding and managing hypospadias.” F1000Prime Reports, 3, 2.
  4. Paulozzi, L. J., Erickson, J. D., & Jackson, R. J. (1997). “Hypospadias trends in two US surveillance systems.” Pediatrics, 100(5), 831-834.
  5. Barbagli, G., De Angelis, M., Romano, G., & Lazzeri, M. (2007). “Long-term follow-up of urethroplasty for anterior and posterior urethral strictures.” Journal of Urology, 178(6), 2438-2441.
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